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At the beginning of the development of semiconductors, stood one scientific discovery, which was for a long time ignored.1876 Ferdinand Brown hold a lecture on current flow in crystals.
The first transistor, 1947
The conductivity of a pure semiconductor crystal is based on the formation of freely mobile charge carriers: Electrons and electron holes. The electron holes behave like positive charges. The conductivity increases with increasing temperature.
Also the second half 20. century is clearly shaped by the upswing of the semiconductor industry. Electronic circuits revolutionized the working sphere and spare time.
|Aluminiumgalliumarsenid (AlGaAs) – red and infrared, till 1000 nm wavelength |
Galliumaluminiumarsenid (GaAlAs) – 665 nm, red, LWL till 1000 nm
Galliumarsenidphosphid (GaAsP) and Aluminiumindiumgalliumphosphid (AlInGaP) – red, orange and yellow
Galliumphosphid (GaP) – green
Indiumgalliumnitrid (InGaN)/Galliumnitrid (GaN) – UV, blue and green
Copperplumbid (CuPb) - emit near Infrared (NIR)
White LEDS are mostly blue LEDS with a phosphorus layer, which works as a luminescence converter
Indiumgalliumnitrid (InGaN)/Galliumnitrid (GaN) – UV, blue,
Galliumphosphid (GaP) – green,
Galliumaluminiumarsenid (GaAlAs) – z. B. 665 nm, red,
Aluminiumindiumgalliumphosphid (AlInGaP), orange.
We assemble a diode now in thoughts.
We take one piece each of n - type and p - type material. As long as the two pieces do not touch themselves, they are electrically neutral. In the n - type are many freely mobile electrons and in the p - type are many freely mobile electron holes.
Now we bring n and the p - type in contact and apply a current. At the contact area now some comes in motion. Electrons from the n-range and electron holes from the p-range move by the p-n junction (gold lead) and
A new procedure announces a more economical production with white LEDs:
With that most usual manufacturing processes around white LEDs to manufacture, gallium nitride is steamed then again replaced on a bottom layer made of sapphire and again vaporized. Thus develops the first layer GaN semiconductor crystal. In a new procedure of the Birck Nanotechnology center at the University of Purdue the expensive sapphire layer was replaced now by silicon. A coating from zircon nitride prevents that the silicon layer absorbs light. The use of zircon nitride only made possible by one the silicon with an intermediate layer from aluminum nitride covered before, in order to prevent the reaction of the silicon with the zircon nitride. As last layer the gallium nitride becomes vapour-deposited. The substantially more favorable and wide silicon wafers can be used by this procedure for the LED production.
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